8 Bit Emulation Compact Controller


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Features
Probes


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  Highlights
Universal Emulation Controller
Support for all 8 Bit Probes
Mapper
Trigger System
Banking Support
Code Coverage
Universal Counter
Pulse Generator
VCO
Trace Analyzer
Performance Analyzer
 
  Introduction
The ECC8 is the universal emulation system for all 8 bit emulation probes.

The system includes the general emulator functions like mapper, trigger system and runtime control system. The banking system supports emulation up to 16 MByte with 256 bank. The universal mapper can support mirroring and splitting for every 4K area. 4 different memory classes with each 16 MByte are supplied by the mapper.

The trigger system enables simple trigger functions on address breakpoints, on events and external signals. An trigger output for external DSOs or logic analyzers is available.

Additional many support systems like universal counter, VCO, pulse generator and glitch detector allow easy emulation and bug detection in complex applications.

An analyzer system with 80 trace channels, time stamp and performance analyzer capability is included in this module.


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Features



The ECC8 is a low cost, high-performance module for emulation and logic analysis. It is fully compatible to the TRACE32 bus system and may work together with all 8 bit probes and some 16 bit probes when emulating the 8 bit derivates.

Symbolic Debugging

A hierarchical symbol database enables structured symbolic debugging. Symbol names can be up to 255 significant characters long and can be used to show single program addresses, module names and memory classes. With 2 Mbyte of free memory (within the System Control Unit), approximately 60000 symbols may be loaded. The disassembler can use the symbols for labels and/or operands.

High-Level Language Debugging

The high-level debugger can support all common high-level languages but includes special support for PL/M, C, PASCAL and ADA in that it recognizes and uses all data types. The screen display can be in assembler, high-level or a mixture of the two. It is possible to construct both assembler and high-level windows on the screen simultaneously. All variable types specific to the high-level language can be displayed and modified. Addresses can be absolute, relative or line number based.

Real-Time Debugging

A newly developed multitasking debugger is provided which allows up to 16 processes or independent programs to be run simultaneously. Each task can be defined as a foreground or background task. For systems that require certain aspects of their operation to be maintained at all times (e.g. interrupts, timer operations etc), the background programs can be executed so that these real-time dependencies can be serviced. The foreground task is then debugged in the normal manner but even when not executing the foreground task, the background programs still operate in real- time.

Edit/Debug Link

The editor window can be synchronised to the debugging window so that when an error is found, the source text can immediately be shown and if required, edited. Also during debugging, it is possible to place markers in the source text at appropriate points so that all corrections can be made at the same time, but later. When the source text is reopened, the system will present each line marked for correction in sequence.

On-Screen Assembler

The on-screen assembler is provided in place of the more common line assembler found on other systems. With the on-screen assembler, short programs can be written quickly and reliably. It is not a full assembler whose output code is linkable in the usual way to the main program.

Separate Emulation Control Processor

The emulator is controlled by a separate processor with approximately 1 MIPs performance. Functions such as task changing or memory refresh are done independently of the main system controller or the emulation CPU.

2 Emulator Operating Modes

  • Stand Alone Mode
      The emulator operates without being connected to the target system. In this mode all emulator capabilities can be used to debug software.
  • Active Mode
      The emulator operates with the target system (with internal or external clock). This mode provides the ability to test software and hardware using all the functions of TRACE32.

Multi-Step Operation

A step mode is provided whereby the emulator simply steps the CPU instruction by instruction as fast as it can. In this mode, operating speed of the target is reduced by a factor of approximately 100, but all register values are available at each step.

Bus Structure for 8 Bit CPU up to 16 Mbyte

High Clock Frequency

Because of the compact, layered construction, bus lengths are kept to a minimum and clock frequencies of 30MHz are possible for the support of fast 8 bit CPUs.

Memory Orientated Breakpoint System with up to 16 Mbyte Breakpoint Memory

Most currently available emulators use multiple address and data comparators to form the breakpoint system. This technique not only restricts the number of breakpoints available it also means that systems using bank selection are difficult to support. The breakpoint, memory on the TRACE32 is basically a bytewide memory structure that can be mapped in a similar way to the overlay memory. When any memory location is accessed, the corresponding breakpoint byte is also accessed so that there are effectively 8 kinds of breakpoints for each addressable location.

8 Breakpoint Types

  • Program Breakpoint
  • High-Level Breakpoint
  • Spot Breakpoint
  • Data Read Breakpoint
  • Data Write Breakpoint
  • General Purpose Point A
  • General Purpose Point B
  • General Purpose Point C
In each group there are up to 16 million breakpoints available depending upon the amount of breakpoint ram fitted. Breakpoints can be specified as a single address or an address range. Each breakpoint group can be made task specific so that for example, they are only operative during foreground program execution on multitasking systems.

Hardware Support for High-Level Language Debugging

By using a specially reserved bit in the breakpoint memory, high-speed debugging of systems using high-level languages is available.

Memory Test on Power up with Access Time Test

After turning on the system, an optional memory test can be performed on both emulation and breakpoint memories. The maxinium access time of the system can be measured prior to beginning a debug session.

Support for External Bank Switching (up to 256 banks)

External bank switching schemes or MMUs can be supported by the memory mapper. For this there are separate probe inputs to the emulator. This option is only sensible on CPUs with less than 16 Mbyte addressing range.

Support for EPROMs with Inbuilt Paging

EPROMs of the types 27513 or 27011 are supported without external logic. The address area within the EPROM has to be defined by the user, so that the emulator can support the device.

Support for Dynamic Memory in the Target System

In order to refresh target dynamic ram when the emulation is stopped, a memory refresh function is provided. The address range and memory class over which the refresh occurs can be defined.

Selective Mapping of Memory Classes (CODE, EXTERNAL, etc)

The address mapper can segment the memory into 2 segments. Using this segmentation, it is possible for example to split the memory such that a PROGRAM area can be mapped to the emulators ram whilst the EXTERNAL area remains mapped as target memory. It is also possible to have totally separate physical memory areas displayed simultaneously.

Memory Mapping in 4K Blocks and bytewise

The main mapping of memory is done in 4K blocks. However within two address ranges 8 long mapping can also be performed downto a single byte resolution (useful for I/O mapping).

Memory Mapping Functions

  • Static Emulation RAM
  • Dynamic Emulation RAM
  • Static Breakpoint RAM
  • Dynamic Breakpoint RAM
  • Flag RAM

Wait States

0 to 250 wait cycles can be specified within any particular address range.

Access Protection and Write Protection

Data access in specific address areas can be prevented. Using this feature for example, it is possible to prevent an I/O access occurring at a specific address (if bytewise mapping is operative).

Most Emulation Functions can be used whilst the target CPU is running ('on the fly' operation)

Dual-Ported Access to all Emulation Memory

The whole emulation memory system (emulation and breakpoint memory) in dual-ported. This allows the emulator to read or write memory whilst the target system is running in real-time e.g. to show variables, port contents etc. For low to medium speed CPU clock frequencies (e.g. 8 MHz Z180) there is no degradation in performance of the target system due to the operation of the dual-port access mechanism. At higher CPU clock frequencies, the performance may be slightly reduced in accordance with the number of accesses made by the control system. The dual-port access mechanism can be switched off, but if this is done, then memory access by the emulator can only take place when the target program is stopped.

Maximum 16 Mbyte Emulation RAM and 16 Mbyte Breakpoint RAM

In order to store programs in the emulator during the development phase, the address space of the emulator can be as high as 16 Mbyte. This memory can be implemented using static or dynamic rams.

128/512 Kbyte Memory on Board

  • 128/512 Kbyte emulation memory
  • 128/512 Kbyte break memory
  • 128/512 Kbyte flag memory

Slot for 2 Mbyte Static Emulation and Breakpoint Memory

In the ECU module, up to 2 Mbyte of memory may be fitted. This can be user defined to be either emulation memory or breakpoint memory.

Flag System

In a special memory, all addresses which are read or written are marked with read or write flags. This memory therefore can supply a lot of important information:
  • Detection of uninitialised memory.
  • Reading of uninitialised memory can be forced to generate an automatic break or to trigger the trace analyzer.
  • Systematic program test due to the fact that each executed module will be marked in the flag ram.
  • Detection of unused or unexecuted code.
  • Systematic system test through visible code coverage analysis.
  • Detecting accesses to unused or illegal address locations.

Trigger Outputs

8 trigger/status outputs are provided. These outputs are mainly intended for triggering or controlling certain functions within the target system. External analyzers can be triggered using the Trace Analyzer outputs.
  • Analyzer trigger output
  • Emulator RUN signal
  • Address signal from the breakpoint memory
  • Pulse generator output
  • Reset output (hardware reset for target system)

System Clock Generator

  • 2.5 MHz
  • 5 MHz
  • 10 MHz
  • VCO

Bus Timeout

Cycle time programmable from 10 us to 10ms. Expiry of the timeout period can be made to generate an emulator break.

Strobe Monitor for Target System

If the strobe period becomes bigger 10 us the system will alert the user. If programmed to do so, the emulator can go into a standby mode if this occurs.

Delayed Break

A trigger delay between the trigger event and the emulation break can be specified in terms of time, a cycle count or trace cycle count.
  • Time delay 100ns to 300 days
  • Cycles 0 to 2.8 E+14
  • Trace cycles 0 to 2.8 E+14
The triggering can either stop the target CPU or only the analyzers data capture.

Break Event Sources

  • Exception break (e.g. RESET, NMI etc)
  • Analyzer break A
  • Analyzer break B
  • Bus timeout
  • high-level breakpoint
  • Normal breakpoint
  • General purpose breakpoint A
  • General purpose breakpoint B
  • General purpose breakpoint C
  • Data read breakpoint
  • Data write breakpoint

Internal Frequency Generator

  • Variable VCO with frequency range from 1 to 70 MHz.
  • No phase change when frequency changed - this can be used to test the limiting frequencies of the target system. Output available for direct connection to the target system (BNC).
  • Emulation CPU clock frequency programming is done via the emulation control unit.

Integrated Universal Counter

  • Frequency 0 to 20MHz
  • System clock 0 to 80MHz
  • Pulse width 100ns to 300 days
  • Positive or negative edge count
  • 0 to 2.8E + 14
  • Use for measuring of internal and external signals like cycle frequency, CPU clock frequency, interrupt frequency etc.

Profiler

  • Data transfer rates
  • Interrupt rates
  • System performance

Slave StopMaster/Slave Synchronisation of several Emulators and Analyzers

Each of the following functions can be enabled or disabled individually:
  • Master Start
  • Master Stop
  • Slave Start
  • Slave Stop
In the slave mode the emulator follows whichever instrument is defined as the master. In the master mode, the emulator controls all other emulators designated as slaves. The sychronisation timing error between individual instruments is less thn 1us.

Runtime Analyzer

Program runtime is recorded automatically.
  • Time from initial start
      300ns to 300 days
  • Time from last breakpoint
      100ns to 300 days
  • Time difference between 3 refs
      300ns to 300 days
  • Timers can be interrogated at any time and their values displayed

Inbuilt Pulse Generator

  • Pulse output 50 Ohm/ 5V
  • Output level static HIGH, LOW, LOWPULSE or HIGHPULSE.
  • Pulse width 100ns to 6.5ms
  • Single shot mode via keypress

Break Monitor

The status of all the trigger settings are visible within their own window and can be modified 'on the fly'.

Trace with 88 Trace Channels

  • 24 bit address
  • 8 bit data
  • 8 bit extendet data
  • 8 bit status signals
  • 16 bit universal channels (interrupt, ...)
  • 2 bit markers
  • 2 bit 4 trigger levels
  • 8 bit external trigger inputs
  • 1 bit DMA access
  • 11 bit reserved (RUN, ....)

High-Speed 150ns Cycle Time

Large Trace Depth (32 KFrames)

Trace Memory Depth programmable from 0.1 K to 32 K

Two Operating Modes - FIFO and STACK

PRESTORE Function

In the PRESTORE mode, the analyzer if only sampling data transfers samples always the previous opfetch cycle.

Freely defined Markers can also be recorded to highlight specific Routines

Internal Expansion Capability

For emulator modules which need more trace capacity, the necessary extra bits are built into the emulator module itself (e.g. 64 additional channels with the trace board on microcontroller emulation haeds).

External Trigger Inputs

  • 1 inputs with 8 channels
  • 2 trigger qualifiers for each trigger level
  • Static levels of the trigger inputs can be read at any time
  • Free format definition of external trigger events

Free Format Definition of Data Events

Data events can be specified with constants, masks, range or boolean formulae. Data events may be 8 or 16 bit events. To build 16 bit events 2 sucessive cycles are analyzed at the same time (ranges, masks).

Hex and Mnemonic Display of Trace Data

Graphic Display

Tracking of high-level Source Lines in the Listings

Time Correlation available with Logic Timing Analyzer

Trigger Outputs

  • 2 freely programmable outputs
  • BNC connector for oscilloscope trigger

Analyzer Trigger Unit with 4 Levels

Analyzer Programming via a special Window

The programming of this complex trigger unit is done in an assembler like language for maximum flexibility. Using this language, the programming of very complex trigger sequences or operations can be defined.

Symbolic Operations for Analyzer Programming

All output operators and input variables can be input in symbolic form. The target program symbols can also be used.

Trigger Sources

  • 3 address ranges
  • 2 data events (mask, range, ASCII, hex, binary)
  • 2 external trigger events
  • CPU state (MEM READ, IO WRITE, INTA, ...)
  • Counter output

Trigger Operations

  • Count.Restart
  • Count.Enable
  • Sample.Enable
  • Trigger.Emulator
  • Trigger.Exception
  • Out (Target Stimulation)
  • Break
  • Bus.Trigger
  • Spot
  • GOTO level

Free Format Definition of Data, Address and Trigger Events

Time, Event or external Clock Measurements with up to 3 Counters

There are two 16 bit counters for event measurement or event triggering. The counter may be used as one 32 bit counter to build time windows or as one 32 bit retriggerable delay counter. One counter is only event counters where access to the counter status from the trigger sequences is not allowed. 2 counters are retriggerable and can be evaluated as part of an expression in the trigger sequences. Each counter can be programmed as a timer for timing measurements or an event counter (external clock). 2 universal counters - 16 bit
  • Event count 1 to 65535
  • Cycles 1 to 65535
  • Time 0 to 6.5ms
  • Retriggerable
  • Selective release
  • Trigger event when counter is zero
  • Definition of time and event windows
  • May be used as one 32 bit counter

All Counters can be read `on the fly'

Trigger Monitor

A Display of the count values, the trigger values, the trigger levels and the trigger flags is available in the trigger monitor window.

Time Stamp

The Time Stamp Unit tags each trace record with a time value. These values are absolute and sychronised with all the other time values within the TRACE32 system.
  • Recording depth max. 32K
  • 40 time stamp recording channels
  • Resolution 100ns
  • Maximum measuring time 1d

Function Analysis

  • Min. and max. time
  • Passes
  • Include and exclude time

Link Analysis

  • Callers
  • Min. and max. times
  • Calls

Duration

  • Execution time
  • Response time

Distance

  • Time between samples

Performance Analyzer Resolution

  • 31 channels
  • 1 us

Performance Analyzer Modes

  • Program address
  • Access

Performance Address Ranges

  • Moduls
  • Functions
  • Address ranges

Power Consumption

  • 12 W
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Probes


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Copyright © 2016 Lauterbach GmbH, Altlaufstr.40, D-85635 Höhenkirchen-Siegertsbrunn, Germany  Impressum
The information presented is intended to give overview information only.
Changes and technical enhancements or modifications can be made without notice. Report Errors
Last generated/modified: 28-Jan-2016